Equity Option Strategies, why

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10 Options Strategies To Know

Traders often jump into trading options with little understanding of options strategies. There are many strategies available that limit risk and maximize return. With a little effort, traders can learn how to take advantage of the flexibility and power options offer. With this in mind, we’ve put together this primer, which should shorten the learning curve and point you in the right direction.

4 Options Strategies To Know

1. Covered Call

With calls, one strategy is simply to buy a naked call option. You can also structure a basic covered call or buy-write. This is a very popular strategy because it generates income and reduces some risk of being long stock alone. The trade-off is that you must be willing to sell your shares at a set price: the short strike price. To execute the strategy, you purchase the underlying stock as you normally would, and simultaneously write (or sell) a call option on those same shares.

In this example we are using a call option on a stock, which represents 100 shares of stock per call option. For every 100 shares of stock you buy, you simultaneously sell 1 call option against it. It is referred to as a covered call because in the event that a stock rockets higher in price, your short call is covered by the long stock position. Investors might use this strategy when they have a short-term position in the stock and a neutral opinion on its direction. They might be looking to generate income (through the sale of the call premium), or protect against a potential decline in the underlying stock’s value.

In the P&L graph above, notice how as the stock price increases, the negative P&L from the call is offset by the long shares position. Because you receive premium from selling the call, as the stock moves through the strike price to the upside, the premium you received allows you to effectively sell your stock at a higher level than the strike price (strike + premium received). The covered call’s P&L graph looks a lot like a short naked put’s P&L graph.

Covered Call

2. Married Put

In a married put strategy, an investor purchases an asset (in this example, shares of stock), and simultaneously purchases put options for an equivalent number of shares. The holder of a put option has the right to sell stock at the strike price. Each contract is worth 100 shares. The reason an investor would use this strategy is simply to protect their downside risk when holding a stock. This strategy functions just like an insurance policy, and establishes a price floor should the stock’s price fall sharply.

An example of a married put would be if an investor buys 100 shares of stock and buys one put option simultaneously. This strategy is appealing because an investor is protected to the downside should a negative event occur. At the same time, the investor would participate in all of the upside if the stock gains in value. The only downside to this strategy occurs if the stock does not fall, in which case the investor loses the premium paid for the put option.

In the P&L graph above, the dashed line is the long stock position. With the long put and long stock positions combined, you can see that as the stock price falls the losses are limited. Yet, the stock participates in upside above the premium spent on the put. The married put’s P&L graph looks similar to a long call’s P&L graph.

What’s a Married Put?

3. Bull Call Spread

In a bull call spread strategy, an investor will simultaneously buy calls at a specific strike price and sell the same number of calls at a higher strike price. Both call options will have the same expiration and underlying asset. This type of vertical spread strategy is often used when an investor is bullish on the underlying and expects a moderate rise in the price of the asset. The investor limits his/her upside on the trade, but reduces the net premium spent compared to buying a naked call option outright.

In the P&L graph above, you can see that this is a bullish strategy, so the trader needs the stock to increase in price in order to make a profit on the trade. The trade-off when putting on a bull call spread is that your upside is limited, while your premium spent is reduced. If outright calls are expensive, one way to offset the higher premium is by selling higher strike calls against them. This is how a bull call spread is constructed.

How To Manage A Bull Call Spread

4. Bear Put Spread

The bear put spread strategy is another form of vertical spread. In this strategy, the investor will simultaneously purchase put options at a specific strike price and sell the same number of puts at a lower strike price. Both options would be for the same underlying asset and have the same expiration date. This strategy is used when the trader is bearish and expects the underlying asset’s price to decline. It offers both limited losses and limited gains.

In the P&L graph above, you can see that this is a bearish strategy, so you need the stock to fall in order to profit. The trade-off when employing a bear put spread is that your upside is limited, but your premium spent is reduced. If outright puts are expensive, one way to offset the high premium is by selling lower strike puts against them. This is how a bear put spread is constructed.

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5. Protective Collar

A protective collar strategy is performed by purchasing an out-of-the-money put option and simultaneously writing an out-of-the-money call option for the same underlying asset and expiration. This strategy is often used by investors after a long position in a stock has experienced substantial gains. This options combination allows investors to have downside protection (long puts to lock in profits), while having the trade-off of potentially being obligated to sell shares at a higher price (selling higher = more profit than at current stock levels).

A simple example would be if an investor is long 100 shares of IBM at $50 and IBM has risen to $100 as of January 1 st . The investor could construct a protective collar by selling one IBM March 15 th 105 call and simultaneously buying one IBM March 95 put. The trader is protected below $95 until March 15 th , with the trade-off of potentially having the obligation to sell his/her shares at $105.

In the P&L graph above, you can see that the protective collar is a mix of a covered call and a long put. This is a neutral trade set-up, meaning that you are protected in the event of falling stock, but with the trade-off of having the potential obligation to sell your long stock at the short call strike. Again, though, the investor should be happy to do so, as they have already experienced gains in the underlying shares.

What is a Protective Collar?

6. Long Straddle

A long straddle options strategy is when an investor simultaneously purchases a call and put option on the same underlying asset, with the same strike price and expiration date. An investor will often use this strategy when he or she believes the price of the underlying asset will move significantly out of a range, but is unsure of which direction the move will take. This strategy allows the investor to have the opportunity for theoretically unlimited gains, while the maximum loss is limited only to the cost of both options contracts combined.

In the P&L graph above, notice how there are two breakeven points. This strategy becomes profitable when the stock makes a large move in one direction or the other. The investor doesn’t care which direction the stock moves, only that it is a greater move than the total premium the investor paid for the structure.

What’s a Long Straddle?

7. Long Strangle

In a long strangle options strategy, the investor purchases an out-of-the-money call option and an out-of-the-money put option simultaneously on the same underlying asset and expiration date. An investor who uses this strategy believes the underlying asset’s price will experience a very large movement, but is unsure of which direction the move will take.

This could, for example, be a wager on an earnings release for a company or an FDA event for a health care stock. Losses are limited to the costs (or premium spent) for both options. Strangles will almost always be less expensive than straddles because the options purchased are out of the money.

In the P&L graph above, notice how there are two breakeven points. This strategy becomes profitable when the stock makes a very large move in one direction or the other. Again, the investor doesn’t care which direction the stock moves, only that it is a greater move than the total premium the investor paid for the structure.

Strangle

8. Long Call Butterfly Spread

All of the strategies up to this point have required a combination of two different positions or contracts. In a long butterfly spread using call options, an investor will combine both a bull spread strategy and a bear spread strategy, and use three different strike prices. All options are for the same underlying asset and expiration date.

For example, a long butterfly spread can be constructed by purchasing one in-the-money call option at a lower strike price, while selling two at-the-money call options, and buying one out-of-the-money call option. A balanced butterfly spread will have the same wing widths. This example is called a “call fly” and results in a net debit. An investor would enter into a long butterfly call spread when they think the stock will not move much by expiration.

In the P&L graph above, notice how the maximum gain is made when the stock remains unchanged up until expiration (right at the ATM strike). The further away the stock moves from the ATM strikes, the greater the negative change in P&L. Maximum loss occurs when the stock settles at the lower strike or below, or if the stock settles at or above the higher strike call. This strategy has both limited upside and limited downside.

9. Iron Condor

An even more interesting strategy is the iron condor. In this strategy, the investor simultaneously holds a bull put spread and a bear call spread. The iron condor is constructed by selling one out-of-the-money put and buying one out-of-the-money put of a lower strike (bull put spread), and selling one out-of-the-money call and buying one out-of-the-money call of a higher strike (bear call spread). All options have the same expiration date and are on the same underlying asset. Typically, the put and call sides have the same spread width. This trading strategy earns a net premium on the structure and is designed to take advantage of a stock experiencing low volatility. Many traders like this trade for its perceived high probability of earning a small amount of premium.

In the P&L graph above, notice how the maximum gain is made when the stock remains in a relatively wide trading range, which would result in the investor earning the total net credit received when constructing the trade. The further away the stock moves through the short strikes (lower for the put, higher for the call), the greater the loss up to the maximum loss. Maximum loss is usually significantly higher than the maximum gain, which intuitively makes sense given that there is a higher probability of the structure finishing with a small gain.

10. Iron Butterfly

The final options strategy we will demonstrate is the iron butterfly. In this strategy, an investor will sell an at-the-money put and buy an out-of-the-money put, while also selling an at-the-money call and buying an out-of-the-money call. All options have the same expiration date and are on the same underlying asset. Although similar to a butterfly spread, this strategy differs because it uses both calls and puts, as opposed to one or the other.

This strategy essentially combines selling an at-the-money straddle and buying protective “wings.” You can also think of the construction as two spreads. It is common to have the same width for both spreads. The long out-of-the-money call protects against unlimited downside. The long out-of-the-money put protects against downside from the short put strike to zero. Profit and loss are both limited within a specific range, depending on the strike prices of the options used. Investors like this strategy for the income it generates and the higher probability of a small gain with a non-volatile stock.

In the P&L graph above, notice how the maximum gain is made when the stock remains at the at-the-money strikes of the call and put sold. The maximum gain is the total net premium received. Maximum loss occurs when the stock moves above the long call strike or below the long put strike. (For related reading, see “Best Online Stock Brokers for Options Trading 2020”)

Essential Options Trading Guide

Options trading may seem overwhelming at first, but it’s easy to understand if you know a few key points. Investor portfolios are usually constructed with several asset classes. These may be stocks, bonds, ETFs, and even mutual funds. Options are another asset class, and when used correctly, they offer many advantages that trading stocks and ETFs alone cannot.

Key Takeaways

  • An option is a contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put) the underlying asset at a specific price on or before a certain date.
  • People use options for income, to speculate, and to hedge risk.
  • Options are known as derivatives because they derive their value from an underlying asset.
  • A stock option contract typically represents 100 shares of the underlying stock, but options may be written on any sort of underlying asset from bonds to currencies to commodities.

Option

What Are Options?

Options are contracts that give the bearer the right, but not the obligation, to either buy or sell an amount of some underlying asset at a pre-determined price at or before the contract expires.   Options can be purchased like most other asset classes with brokerage investment accounts. 

Options are powerful because they can enhance an individual’s portfolio. They do this through added income, protection, and even leverage. Depending on the situation, there is usually an option scenario appropriate for an investor’s goal. A popular example would be using options as an effective hedge against a declining stock market to limit downside losses. Options can also be used to generate recurring income. Additionally, they are often used for speculative purposes such as wagering on the direction of a stock. 

There is no free lunch with stocks and bonds. Options are no different. Options trading involves certain risks that the investor must be aware of before making a trade. This is why, when trading options with a broker, you usually see a disclaimer similar to the following:

Options involve risks and are not suitable for everyone. Options trading can be speculative in nature and carry substantial risk of loss.

Options as Derivatives

Options belong to the larger group of securities known as derivatives. A derivative’s price is dependent on or derived from the price of something else. As an example, wine is a derivative of grapes ketchup is a derivative of tomatoes, and a stock option is a derivative of a stock. Options are derivatives of financial securities—their value depends on the price of some other asset. Examples of derivatives include calls, puts, futures, forwards, swaps, and mortgage-backed securities, among others.

Call and Put Options

Options are a type of derivative security. An option is a derivative because its price is intrinsically linked to the price of something else. If you buy an options contract, it grants you the right, but not the obligation to buy or sell an underlying asset at a set price on or before a certain date.

A call option gives the holder the right to buy a stock and a put option gives the holder the right to sell a stock. Think of a call option as a down-payment for a future purpose. 

Call Option Example

A potential homeowner sees a new development going up. That person may want the right to purchase a home in the future, but will only want to exercise that right once certain developments around the area are built.

The potential home buyer would benefit from the option of buying or not. Imagine they can buy a call option from the developer to buy the home at say $400,000 at any point in the next three years. Well, they can—you know it as a non-refundable deposit. Naturally, the developer wouldn’t grant such an option for free. The potential home buyer needs to contribute a down-payment to lock in that right.

With respect to an option, this cost is known as the premium. It is the price of the option contract. In our home example, the deposit might be $20,000 that the buyer pays the developer. Let’s say two years have passed, and now the developments are built and zoning has been approved. The home buyer exercises the option and buys the home for $400,000 because that is the contract purchased.

The market value of that home may have doubled to $800,000. But because the down payment locked in a pre-determined price, the buyer pays $400,000. Now, in an alternate scenario, say the zoning approval doesn’t come through until year four. This is one year past the expiration of this option. Now the home buyer must pay the market price because the contract has expired. In either case, the developer keeps the original $20,000 collected.

Call Option Basics

Put Option Example

Now, think of a put option as an insurance policy. If you own your home, you are likely familiar with purchasing homeowner’s insurance. A homeowner buys a homeowner’s policy to protect their home from damage. They pay an amount called the premium, for some amount of time, let’s say a year. The policy has a face value and gives the insurance holder protection in the event the home is damaged.

What if, instead of a home, your asset was a stock or index investment? Similarly, if an investor wants insurance on his/her S&P 500 index portfolio, they can purchase put options. An investor may fear that a bear market is near and may be unwilling to lose more than 10% of their long position in the S&P 500 index. If the S&P 500 is currently trading at $2500, he/she can purchase a put option giving the right to sell the index at $2250, for example, at any point in the next two years.

If in six months the market crashes by 20% (500 points on the index), he or she has made 250 points by being able to sell the index at $2250 when it is trading at $2000—a combined loss of just 10%. In fact, even if the market drops to zero, the loss would only be 10% if this put option is held. Again, purchasing the option will carry a cost (the premium), and if the market doesn’t drop during that period, the maximum loss on the option is just the premium spent.

Put Option Basics

Buying, Selling Calls/Puts

There are four things you can do with options:

  1. Buy calls
  2. Sell calls
  3. Buy puts
  4. Sell puts

Buying stock gives you a long position. Buying a call option gives you a potential long position in the underlying stock. Short-selling a stock gives you a short position. Selling a naked or uncovered call gives you a potential short position in the underlying stock.

Buying a put option gives you a potential short position in the underlying stock. Selling a naked, or unmarried, put gives you a potential long position in the underlying stock. Keeping these four scenarios straight is crucial.

People who buy options are called holders and those who sell options are called writers of options. Here is the important distinction between holders and writers:

  1. Call holders and put holders (buyers) are not obligated to buy or sell. They have the choice to exercise their rights. This limits the risk of buyers of options to only the premium spent.
  2. Call writers and put writers (sellers), however, are obligated to buy or sell if the option expires in-the-money (more on that below). This means that a seller may be required to make good on a promise to buy or sell. It also implies that option sellers have exposure to more, and in some cases, unlimited, risks. This means writers can lose much more than the price of the options premium.   

Why Use Options

Speculation

Speculation is a wager on future price direction. A speculator might think the price of a stock will go up, perhaps based on fundamental analysis or technical analysis. A speculator might buy the stock or buy a call option on the stock. Speculating with a call option—instead of buying the stock outright—is attractive to some traders since options provide leverage. An out-of-the-money call option may only cost a few dollars or even cents compared to the full price of a $100 stock.

Hedging

Options were really invented for hedging purposes. Hedging with options is meant to reduce risk at a reasonable cost. Here, we can think of using options like an insurance policy. Just as you insure your house or car, options can be used to insure your investments against a downturn.

Imagine that you want to buy technology stocks. But you also want to limit losses. By using put options, you could limit your downside risk and enjoy all the upside in a cost-effective way. For short sellers, call options can be used to limit losses if wrong—especially during a short squeeze.

How Options Work

In terms of valuing option contracts, it is essentially all about determining the probabilities of future price events. The more likely something is to occur, the more expensive an option would be that profits from that event. For instance, a call value goes up as the stock (underlying) goes up. This is the key to understanding the relative value of options.

The less time there is until expiry, the less value an option will have. This is because the chances of a price move in the underlying stock diminish as we draw closer to expiry. This is why an option is a wasting asset. If you buy a one-month option that is out of the money, and the stock doesn’t move, the option becomes less valuable with each passing day. Since time is a component to the price of an option, a one-month option is going to be less valuable than a three-month option. This is because with more time available, the probability of a price move in your favor increases, and vice versa.

Accordingly, the same option strike that expires in a year will cost more than the same strike for one month. This wasting feature of options is a result of time decay. The same option will be worth less tomorrow than it is today if the price of the stock doesn’t move. 

Volatility also increases the price of an option. This is because uncertainty pushes the odds of an outcome higher. If the volatility of the underlying asset increases, larger price swings increase the possibilities of substantial moves both up and down. Greater price swings will increase the chances of an event occurring. Therefore, the greater the volatility, the greater the price of the option. Options trading and volatility are intrinsically linked to each other in this way. 

On most U.S. exchanges, a stock option contract is the option to buy or sell 100 shares; that’s why you must multiply the contract premium by 100 to get the total amount you’ll have to spend to buy the call.

What happened to our option investment
May 1 May 21 Expiry Date
Stock Price $67 $78 $62
Option Price $3.15 $8.25 worthless
Contract Value $315 $825 $0
Paper Gain/Loss $0 $510 -$315

The majority of the time, holders choose to take their profits by trading out (closing out) their position. This means that option holders sell their options in the market, and writers buy their positions back to close. Only about 10% of options are exercised, 60% are traded (closed) out, and 30% expire worthlessly.

Fluctuations in option prices can be explained by intrinsic value and extrinsic value, which is also known as time value. An option’s premium is the combination of its intrinsic value and time value. Intrinsic value is the in-the-money amount of an options contract, which, for a call option, is the amount above the strike price that the stock is trading. Time value represents the added value an investor has to pay for an option above the intrinsic value.   This is the extrinsic value or time value. So, the price of the option in our example can be thought of as the following:

Premium = Intrinsic Value + Time Value
$8.25 $8.00 $0.25

In real life, options almost always trade at some level above their intrinsic value, because the probability of an event occurring is never absolutely zero, even if it is highly unlikely.

Types of Options

American and European Options

American options can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and the expiration date. European options are different from American options in that they can only be exercised at the end of their lives on their expiration date. The distinction between American and European options has nothing to do with geography, only with early exercise. Many options on stock indexes are of the European type.   Because the right to exercise early has some value, an American option typically carries a higher premium than an otherwise identical European option. This is because the early exercise feature is desirable and commands a premium.

There are also exotic options, which are exotic because there might be a variation on the payoff profiles from the plain vanilla options. Or they can become totally different products all together with “optionality” embedded in them. For example, binary options have a simple payoff structure that is determined if the payoff event happens regardless of the degree. Other types of exotic options include knock-out, knock-in, barrier options, lookback options, Asian options, and Bermudan options.   Again, exotic options are typically for professional derivatives traders.

Options Expiration & Liquidity

Options can also be categorized by their duration. Short-term options are those that expire generally within a year. Long-term options with expirations greater than a year are classified as long-term equity anticipation securities or LEAPs. LEAPS are identical to regular options, they just have longer durations.

Options can also be distinguished by when their expiration date falls. Sets of options now expire weekly on each Friday, at the end of the month, or even on a daily basis. Index and ETF options also sometimes offer quarterly expiries. 

Reading Options Tables

More and more traders are finding option data through online sources. (For related reading, see “Best Online Stock Brokers for Options Trading 2020”) While each source has its own format for presenting the data, the key components generally include the following variables:

  • Volume (VLM) simply tells you how many contracts of a particular option were traded during the latest session.
  • The “bid” price is the latest price level at which a market participant wishes to buy a particular option.
  • The “ask” price is the latest price offered by a market participant to sell a particular option.
  • Implied Bid Volatility (IMPL BID VOL) can be thought of as the future uncertainty of price direction and speed. This value is calculated by an option-pricing model such as the Black-Scholes model and represents the level of expected future volatility based on the current price of the option.
  • Open Interest (OPTN OP) number indicates the total number of contracts of a particular option that have been opened. Open interest decreases as open trades are closed.
  • Delta can be thought of as a probability. For instance, a 30-delta option has roughly a 30% chance of expiring in-the-money.
  • Gamma (GMM) is the speed the option is moving in or out-of-the-money. Gamma can also be thought of as the movement of the delta.
  • Vega is a Greek value that indicates the amount by which the price of the option would be expected to change based on a one-point change in implied volatility.
  • Theta is the Greek value that indicates how much value an option will lose with the passage of one day’s time.
  • The “strike price” is the price at which the buyer of the option can buy or sell the underlying security if he/she chooses to exercise the option. 

Buying at the bid and selling at the ask is how market makers make their living.

Long Calls/Puts

The simplest options position is a long call (or put) by itself. This position profits if the price of the underlying rises (falls), and your downside is limited to loss of the option premium spent. If you simultaneously buy a call and put option with the same strike and expiration, you’ve created a straddle.

This position pays off if the underlying price rises or falls dramatically; however, if the price remains relatively stable, you lose premium on both the call and the put. You would enter this strategy if you expect a large move in the stock but are not sure which direction.   

Basically, you need the stock to have a move outside of a range. A similar strategy betting on an outsized move in the securities when you expect high volatility (uncertainty) is to buy a call and buy a put with different strikes and the same expiration—known as a strangle. A strangle requires larger price moves in either direction to profit but is also less expensive than a straddle. On the other hand, being short either a straddle or a strangle (selling both options) would profit from a market that doesn’t move much.   

Below is an explanation of straddles from my Options for Beginners course:

Straddles Academy

And here’s a description of strangles:

How to use Straddle Strategies

Spreads & Combinations

Spreads use two or more options positions of the same class. They combine having a market opinion (speculation) with limiting losses (hedging). Spreads often limit potential upside as well. Yet these strategies can still be desirable since they usually cost less when compared to a single options leg. Vertical spreads involve selling one option to buy another. Generally, the second option is the same type and same expiration, but a different strike.

A bull call spread, or bull call vertical spread, is created by buying a call and simultaneously selling another call with a higher strike price and the same expiration. The spread is profitable if the underlying asset increases in price, but the upside is limited due to the short call strike. The benefit, however, is that selling the higher strike call reduces the cost of buying the lower one.   Similarly, a bear put spread, or bear put vertical spread, involves buying a put and selling a second put with a lower strike and the same expiration. If you buy and sell options with different expirations, it is known as a calendar spread or time spread. 

Spread

Combinations are trades constructed with both a call and a put. There is a special type of combination known as a “synthetic.” The point of a synthetic is to create an options position that behaves like an underlying asset, but without actually controlling the asset. Why not just buy the stock? Maybe some legal or regulatory reason restricts you from owning it. But you may be allowed to create a synthetic position using options.   

Butterflies

A butterfly consists of options at three strikes, equally spaced apart, where all options are of the same type (either all calls or all puts) and have the same expiration. In a long butterfly, the middle strike option is sold and the outside strikes are bought in a ratio of 1:2:1 (buy one, sell two, buy one).

If this ratio does not hold, it is not a butterfly. The outside strikes are commonly referred to as the wings of the butterfly, and the inside strike as the body. The value of a butterfly can never fall below zero. Closely related to the butterfly is the condor – the difference is that the middle options are not at the same strike price. 

Options Risks

Because options prices can be modeled mathematically with a model such as the Black-Scholes, many of the risks associated with options can also be modeled and understood. This particular feature of options actually makes them arguably less risky than other asset classes, or at least allows the risks associated with options to be understood and evaluated. Individual risks have been assigned Greek letter names, and are sometimes referred to simply as “the Greeks.” 

Below is a very basic way to begin thinking about the concepts of Greeks:

Equity Option Strategies, why?

In “An ace on the River” Barry Greenstein talks about an important poker concept that is the basis for why you should be interested in trading traditional options as well as Binaries, Forex & Futures. It’s the idea of perfect play vs correct play. If you knew your opponents cards at each point in a hand (and had a good idea of how he/she plays) you could play perfectly. You do not know your opponents cards, but you can deduce a range of hands based on how the hand evolves. Correct play is to play your hand – and it’s likely development as more cards are dealt – against your opponents likely range of hands & it’s likely development.

In trading if you knew where the market was going & when you could trade perfectly, taking as much leverage as is possible and tailoring your strategy to maximize your outcome. If you know a huge move is imminent Forex or a back-ratio spread or traditional puts or calls are going to be optimal, if it’s a small one put your entire account on a BO … But since we’re not ever sure of market outcome it’s correct to make a wide range of strategic bets.

The value of equity option positions is that they can be constructed & managed such that they are very high probability trades but can still offer large returns. They are considerably more forgiving than straight directional bets because they have ever-changing time value that you can buy and sell. Buying and selling this time value is known as a “strategic overlay” because it’s a layer of profit/loss in addition to direction of the underlying asset and can be constructed to profit in a wide range of scenarios.

This is a daily chart of the SPX, end-of-day Sept 10. The highlighted red candle on the left is August 14th. At that point it’s reasonable to assume that there will be some kind of sideways to down movement into the Kumo over the next couple weeks. Over the next several posts I’ll illustrate various ways to trade this two-week period using options at various strikes & expirations as well as ES futures as a hedge.

If you’re reading this – make comments, ask questions. Hopefully it will be a good learning experience for you & for me.

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