Kerosene Futures Trading Basics

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Contents

Kerosene Futures Trading Basics

Kerosene futures are standardized, exchange-traded contracts in which the contract buyer agrees to take delivery, from the seller, a specific quantity of kerosene (eg. 50 kiloliters) at a predetermined price on a future delivery date.

Kerosene Futures Exchanges

You can trade Kerosene futures at Tokyo Commodity Exchange (TOCOM).

TOCOM Kerosene futures prices are quoted in yen per kiloliter and are traded in lot sizes of 50 kiloliters (13210 gallons).

Exchange & Product Name Symbol Contract Size Initial Margin
TOCOM Kerosene Futures
(Price Quotes)
50 kiloliters
(Full Contract Spec)
JPY 210,000 (approx. 9%)
(Latest Margin Info)

Kerosene Futures Trading Basics

Consumers and producers of kerosene can manage kerosene price risk by purchasing and selling kerosene futures. Kerosene producers can employ a short hedge to lock in a selling price for the kerosene they produce while businesses that require kerosene can utilize a long hedge to secure a purchase price for the commodity they need.

Kerosene futures are also traded by speculators who assume the price risk that hedgers try to avoid in return for a chance to profit from favorable kerosene price movement. Speculators buy kerosene futures when they believe that kerosene prices will go up. Conversely, they will sell kerosene futures when they think that kerosene prices will fall.

Learn More About Kerosene Futures & Options Trading

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Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

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Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

Kerosene Futures Trading Basics

Definition:
A put option is an option contract in which the holder (buyer) has the right (but not the obligation) to sell a specified quantity of a security at a specified price (strike price) within a fixed period of time (until its expiration).

For the writer (seller) of a put option, it represents an obligation to buy the underlying security at the strike price if the option is exercised. The put option writer is paid a premium for taking on the risk associated with the obligation.

For stock options, each contract covers 100 shares.

Buying Put Options

Put buying is the simplest way to trade put options. When the options trader is bearish on particular security, he can purchase put options to profit from a slide in asset price. The price of the asset must move significantly below the strike price of the put options before the option expiration date for this strategy to be profitable.

A Simplified Example

Suppose the stock of XYZ company is trading at $40. A put option contract with a strike price of $40 expiring in a month’s time is being priced at $2. You strongly believe that XYZ stock will drop sharply in the coming weeks after their earnings report. So you paid $200 to purchase a single $40 XYZ put option covering 100 shares.

Say you were spot on and the price of XYZ stock plunges to $30 after the company reported weak earnings and lowered its earnings guidance for the next quarter. With this crash in the underlying stock price, your put buying strategy will result in a profit of $800.

Let’s take a look at how we obtain this figure.

If you were to exercise your put option after earnings, you invoke your right to sell 100 shares of XYZ stock at $40 each. Although you don’t own any share of XYZ company at this time, you can easily go to the open market to buy 100 shares at only $30 a share and sell them immediately for $40 per share. This gives you a profit of $10 per share. Since each put option contract covers 100 shares, the total amount you will receive from the exercise is $1000. As you had paid $200 to purchase this put option, your net profit for the entire trade is $800.

This strategy of trading put option is known as the long put strategy. See our long put strategy article for a more detailed explanation as well as formulae for calculating maximum profit, maximum loss and breakeven points.

Protective Puts

Investors also buy put options when they wish to protect an existing long stock position. Put options employed in this manner are also known as protective puts. Entire portfolio of stocks can also be protected using index puts.

Selling Put Options

Instead of purchasing put options, one can also sell (write) them for a profit. Put option writers, also known as sellers, sell put options with the hope that they expire worthless so that they can pocket the premiums. Selling puts, or put writing, involves more risk but can be profitable if done properly.

Covered Puts

The written put option is covered if the put option writer is also short the obligated quantity of the underlying security. The covered put writing strategy is employed when the investor is bearish on the underlying.

Naked Puts

The short put is naked if the put option writer did not short the obligated quantity of the underlying security when the put option is sold. The naked put writing strategy is used when the investor is bullish on the underlying.

For the patient investor who is bullish on a particular company for the long haul, writing naked puts can also be a great strategy to acquire stocks at a discount.

Put Spreads

A put spread is an options strategy in which equal number of put option contracts are bought and sold simultaneously on the same underlying security but with different strike prices and/or expiration dates. Put spreads limit the option trader’s maximum loss at the expense of capping his potential profit at the same time.

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Continue Reading.

Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

The Basics of Trading Crude Oil Futures

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Crude oil is one of the better commodities on which to trade futures contracts. The market is incredibly active, and it is well known to traders around the world. Oil prices fluctuate on the faintest whisper of news regarding pricing, which makes it a favorite of swing and day traders looking for an edge.

This volatile environment can provide some solid trading opportunities, whether your focus is on day trading futures or you are a longer-term trader. It may also provide great losses if you are on the wrong side of a price movement.

Crude oil is also one of the most actively traded commodities in the world.   The price of crude oil affects the price of many other commodities, including gasoline and natural gas. However, the ripple effect of crude oil prices also impacts the price of stocks, bonds, and currencies around the globe. 

Crude oil remains a major source of energy for the world, despite increased interest in the renewable energy sector. 

Crude Oil Contract Specs

Trading crude can be confusing when you first get into it, and you should memorize these specifications before you consider beginning to trade. 

  • Ticker symbol: CL
  • Exchange: NYMEX
  • Trading hours: 9:00 a.m.–2:30 p.m. ET
  • Contract size: 1,000 U.S. barrels (42,000 gallons).
  • Contract months: All months (Jan.–Dec.)
  • Price quote: Price per barrel (example: $65.50 per barrel)
  • Tick size: $0.01 per barrel ($10.00 per contract)
  • Last trading day: Third business day prior to the 25th calendar day of the month preceding the delivery month

Traders are also advised to understand the futures market. When you trade a futures contract you have the obligation to either buy or sell—call or put—the commodity by the expiration date at the stated price. If you hold a call, the only way to avoid actually having to take physical delivery of 10,000 barrels of crude oil is to offset the trade before the expiration. Trading futures is not for the novice. 

Crude Oil Fundamentals

Despite using it every day, not many people know the differences between crude oil and gasoline. Crude is the raw material that is refined to produce gasoline, heating oil, diesel, jet fuel, and many other petrochemicals. The fundamentals are different since it is a raw product. Crude also comes in many different grades. 

Light Sweet Crude Oil is traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). “Light Sweet” is the most popular grade of crude oil being traded because it is the easiest to distill into other products. 

Another grade of oil is Brent Blend Crude, which is primarily traded in London and is seeing increased interest. Russia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States are the world’s three largest oil producers as of 2020.   Brent is the most widely used benchmark for determining gasoline prices. 

West Texas Intermediate (WTI) is crude from U.S. wells. The product is light and sweet and ideal for gasoline. It trades under the CL ticker on the Chicago Merchantile Exchange (CME) and the NYMEX

Middle Eastern crude is known as Dubai and Oman oil. It has a higher sulfur content and falls into the category of heavy, sour oil. The Dubai Mercantile Exchange offers futures for this crude.

When crude oil is refined or processed, it takes about three barrels of oil to produce two barrels of unleaded gas and one barrel of heating oil.   This helps to put into perspective the production needs of crude, and why production and supply levels are watched so closely.

Crude Oil Reports

The main reports for crude oil are found in the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Energy Stocks report. This report is released every Wednesday around 1:00 p.m. ET, with traders eagerly awaiting its arrival. 

Tips on Trading Crude Oil Futures

Oil futures are notorious for their volatility. Here are some quick tips that you should look for when tracking price movement and making trades:

  • The price of unleaded gas and heating oil can influence the price of crude oil.
  • Demand is generally highest during the summer and winter months. Very hot summer or very active driving season (for summer vacations) can increase the demand for crude oil and cause prices to move higher.
  • An extremely cold winter causes a higher demand for heating oil, which is made from crude oil. This usually causes prices to move higher. Watch the weather in the Northeast, since it’s the part of the country that uses heating oil more than any other.
  • Watch for oil production cuts or increases from OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), which determines global supply and demand for crude. 

Volatile Market for Crude Oil Futures

Crude oil often trades in a volatile environment. Major news events can happen overnight, causing oil prices to swing unpredictably and widely. The same thing can happen throughout the day since crude futures trade around the clock. Whether it’s an economic report or tensions in the Middle East, a tight supply situation can exacerbate price movement. 

Supply and demand obviously dictate how the price will move, but this market moves on emotion as well, especially with retail investors who day trade.

If tensions escalate in the Middle East, there’s no telling the extent of possible supply disruptions, and traders often react swiftly on the news, adjusting their strategy following price fluctuations.

Price Movements for Crude Oil

The reason prices move so swiftly is that traders who have short positions in the market tend to cover their shorts quickly if price creeps up, either eroding their gains or causing losses. In order to do this, they have to place buy orders to cover. This wave of buying is done at the same time speculators are jumping on board to establish or add to long positions. The shorts will cover quickly because the risk is just too great; if a major development arose that disrupted supply, shorts could theoretically lose more money than they invested, resulting in a margin call from their brokerage, one of the most dreaded calls in the world of investors.

The usual tendency is for oil prices to spike on news of turmoil in the Middle East. Then prices calm down and start to move lower unless there’s irrefutable evidence of major supply disruptions. Identifying these waves of buying and selling is very important if you want to avoid getting a haircut in the financial markets.

For the most part, crude oil tends to be a trending market, driven largely by psychological movement. There’s usually a major bias to the upside or downside. Trading from the trending side will certainly help improve your odds of success. Crude oil also tends to get stuck in prolonged ranges after a sizable move. A person who can identify these ranges has plenty of opportunities to buy at the low end and sell at the high end. Some investors trade the ranges until there’s a clear breakout either way.

The value of the U.S. dollar is a major component in the price of oil. A higher dollar puts pressure on oil prices.   A lower dollar helps support higher oil prices. Crude oil also tends to move closely with the stock market. A growing economy and stock market tend to support higher oil prices. However, oil prices moving too high can stifle the economy. Historically, oil prices tend to move opposite the stock market. This trend becomes a concern when oil prices approach the psychological price marker of $100 a barrel.

Day Trading Crude Oil Futures

Crude oil is one of the favorite markets of futures day traders. The market typically reacts very well to pivot points and support and resistance levels. You have to make sure you use stops orders in this market. Stop orders are automatically triggered trades that can help reduce the high risk of a market that can make very swift runs—up or down—at any given time.   Longtime energy trader Mark Fisher wrote an excellent book on day trading oil futures titled The Logical Trader.

There’s no shortage of trading opportunities. Most traders close their position end-of-day (EOD) to ensure they sleep at night, considering overnight volatility.

Many of the same principles that apply to stock index futures also apply to crude oil futures. If you like trading the E-mini S&P, you’ll probably like crude oil, too.

Crude oil entered a bear market in June 2020 when the price was just under $108 per barrel on the active month NYMEX crude oil futures contract. By February 2020, the price depreciated to under $30 per barrel. In January 2020, the price was trending around $53.84 per barrel for WTI Crude. As of December 27 2020, the price is on the rise at $61.72 per barrel. 

The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is being presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk including the possible loss of principal.

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